White paper on hardware security for automotive, aerospace, and other applications
SAE J3061 - ISO/SAE 21434 - ISO 26262 - DO-254 – AS6171
Over the last few years suppliers of automotive hardware, IoT devices, electronics for aerospace, defense, and critical infrastructure applications, including 5G networks and cloud computing, have started to implement new design processes to reduce the risk of cybersecurity breaches, particularly in safety-critical and data-sensitive applications.
Traditionally, security engineering has focused on software and system-level issues, and patching-up vulnerabilities as they were discovered. However, ever more cybersecurity attacks leverage hardware flaws. Vulnerable or tampered ICs and electronic parts can compromise the safety of people and the confidentiality, integrity, and availability (CIA) of sensitive information.
Functional safety standards such as ISO 26262 for automotive, IEC 61508 for industrial applications, or DO-254 for avionics do not have provisions for security requirements and a secure hardware development lifecycle and supply chain. Cybersecurity standards that fill this critical gap include SAE J3061 and the upcoming ISO/SAE 21434 for automotive, and SAE AS6171 for the standardization of methods and test procedures to detect Suspect/Counterfeit (SC) electronic parts in aerospace applications.
This white paper fosters an understanding of the general framework of key hardware cybersecurity standards, and their relation between each other and with functional safety standards. It discusses both the risks associated with unintended security vulnerabilities and malicious Trojans. Focusing on digital hardware, the paper addresses the challenges of implementing efficient and robust hardware security and assurance processes leveraging state-of-the-art technology and solutions.
This paper analyzes the trust and security risks in the IC development flow, and considers the industry standards and solutions to implement a secure development process for digital hardware.
The paper is split in two parts. Part 1 focuses on design attacks aiming to insert malicious logic in semiconductor IPs and ICs. Part 2 focuses on architectural and implementation-level bugs, vulnerabilities, and weaknesses that expose hardware to violations of security requirements.
The target audience includes semiconductor executives, engineering managers, and security experts.
Covered topics include
- The IC Supply Chain
- Cybersecurity standards
- Relation between security and functional safety
- Detection of security weaknesses and vulnerabilities, including side-channels
- Denial of service, fault injection, and other attacks
- Security challenges for automotive and mil/aero applications
- Hardware Trojans classification and detection methods